***Scientific Research Links*** - Links to some brilliant crime research and criminal profiling.
Why Care What Others Think?
Mirror mirror: seeing yourself as others see you
Don't be afraid to be yourself, the people who matter don't care; the people that care don't matter.
Anti Social/Psychotic Behavior - symptoms of these two serious disorders. Do you know anyone who exhibits signs of these disorders?
JonBenét Ramsey - Links to resources pertaining to the 1996, Christmas night murder of six-year-old JonBenét Ramsey in her Boulder, Colorado home. Despite a national obsession with this case, no one really knows what happened that cold winter night, although JonBenét's parents continued for years to remain under an "umbrella of suspicion."
**CrimeShots © is hosting these links that we have compiled concerning this case in hopes that some day, somehow, JonBenét will receive her long overdue justice.
Ramsey Family Photos
The JonBenét Ramsey case is the second most famous murder mystery in the world, outranked only by Jack The Ripper!
Conspiracies - interesting links to several conspiracy websites.
A Rare Female Serial Killer - ARMBRUST, Dana Sue (Dana Sue Gray)
Canyon Lake, CA
Convicted of two counts of murder, one count of attempted murder, and one count of robbery.
Revocation effective 3-19-99.
Swiss Criminal Profiling Scientific Research Site - Interesting studies on criminal profiling.
Death by Murder - (Essay) Gathering as much information as possible about the conditions under which murder can occur is a major step towards being able to take preventative action. A prudent step towards reducing one's chance of being murdered is to avoid being in the wrong place at the wrong time. So it therefore seems reasonable to begin by determining what some of the "wrong places" are.
Forensic DNA Criminal Profiling
The Profile of the ''Typical'' Serial Killer
Former FBI profiler Robert Ressler explains why there's no such thing.
Not Guilty by Reason of Insanity
A clear explanation of what it means and how it's applied
Forensic Psychiatrists in the Courtroom
How they're used by prosecutors and defense attorneys.
Inside The Criminal Mind , by Stanton E. Samenow
A review appearing in Crime Times , of a book that argues that criminals simply think differently than the rest of us do.
Mental Disability and Sentencing
How a psychiatrist's testimony will affect how long a criminal will serve.
Mens Rea ("Guilty Mind")
From Nolo Press, a bit technical but interesting: The various ways your state of mind affects whether you're guilty of a crime.
How the "lie detector" is gaining respectability in the courtroom.
Recovered Memory/False Memory
A very negative article about the concept of "remembering" forgotten crimes through psychotherapy.
Repressed Memory or False Memory?
How reliable are recovered memories as a form of evidence?
The Roots Of Criminality
Conflicting expert opinions on what makes a person a criminal.
2nd Sight Magazine
Psychology and Law
Mangled Memories - the ongoing controversy over real and imagined sexual missteps by Catholic clergymen, repressed-memory issues are inescapably present.
Definition of Memory and Memory Implications Site provides a description of memory, amnesia, implicit memory, and the accuracy of memory. Elizabeth Loftus--Leading Researcher in False Memories Elizabeth Loftus' site provides links to articles she has written about false memories. Key Concepts in Hypnosis Site provides information about hypnosis, how it affects memory, and the recovery of false memories. Ottawa Recovered Memory Page Site provides links to articles and to other related web sites concerning recovered memory. Questions and Answers About Memories of Childhood Abuse Article addresses the generation of repressed, recovered, and suggested memories. Recovered Memories in Context Article reviews the recovered memory debate. Recovered Memories of Sexual Abuse: Scientific Research and Scholarly Resources Site summarizes a number of pertinent findings from research concerning recovered memories of sexual abuse. Recovered Memory Project Site includes links to "full-text articles, abstracts, and data tables on recovered memories, memory research, malpractice, ethics and related topics, 22 peer-reviewed studies about amnesia and child abuse, [and] 24 publications on traumatic amnesia in holocaust survivors." Recovered Memory Therapy and False Memory Syndrome Article discusses how false memories are created, "how memory really works, [and] why recovered memory therapy is bad therapy." Repressed Memories & Recovered Memory Therapy (RMT) Some topics covered by this site are what are/are not recovered memories, what techniques are used in recovering memories, how often do repressed memories occur, and how reliable are recovered memories. What Psychologists Know Better About Recovered Memories, Research, and Lawsuits Article discusses the "myth of repressed memories, false memories, and allegations of sexual abuse." Why Believe That for Which There is No Good Evidence? This is an opinion article describing why the belief that repressed memories occur may be false.
Psychology of crime
1. General: The Spiritual Equipment of Man
As in the case of good health, normal spiritual equipment is also a blessing. When defects occur, a crime may be committed. The spiritual equipment of man consists of:
a) The natural urges or instincts
Man is born with a variety of urges, and they exist to ensure the preservation and survival of himself, and of his species.
These urges occur in different strength or intensity in respect of different people. Even in one person, some urge may be more acute than another, or certain combinations of strong and weak urges may be present in a person.
With most people these urges are satisfied in a natural way; e.g. when a person is hungry, he eats, and when he is thirsty, he drinks. Sometimes an urge may be extraordinarily strong, or a person may be unable to satisfy the urge. This may give rise to crime.
The most important urges which are found in all people are the following:
- The nutritive urge (hunger):
This urge determines whether you are hungry or thirsty. If it is over-developed or not satisfied, it may lead to theft.
- The sexual urge:
That is the urge to procreate, and have a family. Deviations may lead to rape, prostitution, homosexuality, etc.
- The herd instinct (gregarious):
That is the urge to be together in groups, to be a part of a family or a nation. If a child is rejected in a family, he may become a member of a gang or a "hippy" colony, in order to satisfy this urge.
- The activity urge
The human being must always be busy. This finds expression in labour and active leisure. When he is inactive, he becomes bored and may think about something to do, which may eventually be to his detriment.
- The self-assertion urge
Everyone cherishes a feeling of appreciation for one's self and keenly wants to attain success and fame. When no one takes notice, he will try to attract attention, e.g. by playing truant, running away from home, stealing a car, etc.
Although we can distinguish among these basic urges they can never be separated. There is a powerful mutual interaction and that determines an individual's personality and affects his behavior to a considerable degree.
Temperament concerns the manner in which an individual's spiritual energy takes its course, and is noticeable in his conduct. It can also be called an individual's personality. Thus we find that some people are surly, while others are friendly; some welcome conversation and easily make friends, while others are reserved; some are impulsive, while others are calm. One's way of conducting oneself reveals one's temperament. Temperamental instability is often found among delinquents. Temperament is closely aligned to attitude.
c) Feeling or emotion
An emotion usually originates as a result of something you see, hear or think about. This feeling amy be pleasant (e.g. love, gladness) or unpleasant (hate, jealousy, rage). The result of this feeling is a certain action, like assault or murder. Man's life is thus affected to a large extent by his feelings or emotions, and therefore it is accorded a distinct place in the causation of anti-social behavior.
d) The will
Throughout one's life, one is faced with choices. One must decide, e.g. on a study course, a job, a life companion, etc. often one must choose between two conflicting aims, e.g. a student has to write a test. He has to choose between staying at home and studying or going to the theatre or swimming pool. The choice he makes will reveal what he considers the most important. If he chooses to study, and abides by his decision, he has a strong will.
Delinquents often have weak will-power. They are easily led astray by friends who persuade them to do something wrong. They protest, but cannot stick to a choice. One can, of course, also choose to do the wrong and the bad.
e) The mind or intellect
Man is distinguished from the animal by his mental faculties, or the talents of thinking, reasoning, observation, considering, meditation and planning. He is able to do this only because he has a superior mind, or intellect, which controls his acts or omissions.
People who are intellectually super-normal are sometimes apt to become bored and frustrated on the level of the common normal life, and then they sometimes apply their superior mental power to criminality. In these cases, the crime generally is well planned and the crime techniques so refined and perfected, that many are never discovered or brought to account.
However, investigation has proved that about 60% of persons who commit crimes have a reasonably low intelligence, and have failed a year of school once or more.
This type of person has difficulty in obtaining work, and to stay employed. This results in unemployment, and in order to obtain money, he commits a crime. The crime pattern is usually characterized by clumsiness without refined planning. This type of criminal is caught more easily than the more intelligent criminal.
Some people suffer from other mental abnormalities such as psychoneurosis and psychosis. Their behavior, as well as that of the psychopath, generally is characteristic of their psychic aberrations and their crimes are typical of their mental ailment.
Character is the moral part of the personality that regulates daily behavior. If a person has defects in their character such as aggressiveness, cunning, intolerance or brutality, he will find it difficult to rationalize between right and wrong in moments of emotional upset and will not be able to exercise self-control.
2. Self Concept
The self-concept has been identified as a very important aspect in human life: a person must be able to have respect for himself; to be "his own best friend". This is how a person sees himself. If a person believes that he is worthless, and that society does not care what happens to him, this attitude (self-perception) may well lead to crime.
Stress can lead to irrational conduct, even to crime. If a person labors under severe emotional distress, that person may feel compelled to act in socially unacceptable manners. Stress has become a major problem in modern life, leading to broken families and deviant behavior.
Aggression and violence often go together. Aggression can be defined as any form of behavior aimed at the partial or total, literal or figurative, destruction of an object or person. The word "violence" is used to describe acts of aggression.
Depression can be a psychosis and also a neurosis. A psychosis is a severe mental illness in which insight was lost. Persons with psychotic depression might believe that the sins of the world are upon them, and that they are a burden to society.
In the case of a neurotic depression, insight will be retained.
A person suffering from depression may believe that life is pointless, so that he might as well "escape" to criminality.
6. Mental Aberrations
The most important mental aberrations are the psychoses, which are severe mental illnesses; notably paranoia and schizophrenia. There are also the neuroses; anxiety states, obsessional compulsive states, hysterical neuroses, dissociative states and neurotic depressions.
There are also organic psychoses; where the mental illness flows from an organic defect in the body of the patient.
It is not difficult to see that any of these conditions could lead to deviant behavior.
7. Personality disorders
Psychopathy, addictions and deviances can be listed under personality disorders.
Once there is a disintegration of personality, deviant behavior can be expected.
Many serious crimes are committed by persons whose personalities do not conform with the norms accepted by society.
Title: Psychology of crime
Description: Several psychological factors that figure into why people commit crimes.
Copyright 2002 by PageWise, Inc.
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is possible to give away and become richer! It is also possible to hold
on too tightly and lose everything. Yes, the liberal man shall be rich!
By watering others, he waters himself.
- Proverbs 11:24-25
Most people are about as happy as they make up their minds to be.
- Abraham Lincoln
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